Wednesday, December 5, 2007

[EQ] Models of public health education: choices for the future?

Models of public health education: choices for the future?

Elizabeth Fee, History of Medicine Division, National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD, United States of America.
Liping Bu Alma College, Alma, MI, United States of America

Bulletin of the World Health Organization - Volume 85, Number 12, December 2007

Available online at: http://www.who.int/bulletin/volumes/85/12/07-044883.pdf

“….the authors illustrate the power of innovative thinking by examining the trailblazing models of public health schools set up in the early 20th century as described in the Welch–Rose Report of 1915. The schools – in China, the United States of America and the former Yugoslavia – demonstrate the diversity of possible models for public health education…..”

“….The architects of these early schools of public health each elaborated, advocated and implemented their concepts of public health education. While the American model emphasized scientific research, public health education in China emphasized community-based health stations offering both preventive and curative health services.

 

In addition to more traditional training for public health officials, the former Yugoslavia highlighted popular health education and a Peasants’ University to raise the level of health knowledge and understanding across a largely rural population. This suggests that there are many possible models for public health education. In the future, perhaps we will develop new and innovative models adapted to the needs of diverse societies.

 

Now that the flow of information and technology across national borders takes place at unprecedented speeds, the architects of future public health educational models should be able to innovate, compare the effectiveness of their programmes and learn from each other’s successes and accomplishments more easily. …”  (au)

 

 

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[EQ] Global health diplomacy: training across disciplines

Global health diplomacy: training across disciplines

Ilona Kickbusch a, Thomas E Novotny b, Nico Drager c, Gaudenz Silberschmidt d, Santiago Alcazar e
Bulletin of the World Health Organization - Volume 85, Number 12, December 2007, 901-980

Available online at: http://www.who.int/bulletin/volumes/85/12/07-045856/en/index.html

“….The interface between trade and health is on the cutting edge of global health diplomacy, write Ilona Kickbusch et al. in a perspective. Foreign policy is now being driven substantially by health to protect national security, free trade and economic advancement, they say. But this exciting new field of study requires conceptual development and practical training programmes……”

 

“…….Some governments have taken purposeful strides to incorporate health as a foreign policy tool. Perhaps, however, it is the other way around: foreign policy is now being driven substantially by health to protect national security, free trade and economic advancement. We offer a few examples of this changing field of health and foreign policy as background to our academic response: The United Kingdom is attempting to establish policy coherence with the development of a central governmental global health strategy based on health as a human right and global public good. Rooted in the recognition of globalization and its effects on health, this new effort will bring together the United Kingdom’s foreign relations, international development, trade and investment policies that can affect global health…”  (au)

 

Affiliations

a.        Graduate Institute for International Studies, Geneva, Switzerland.

b.        University of California, San Francisco, United States of America.

c.        Department of Ethics, Trade, Human Rights and Law, World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland.

d.        Swiss Federal Office of Public Health, Bern, Switzerland.

e.        Ministry of Health for International Affairs, Brasilia, Brazil.

 

 

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This message from the Pan American Health Organization, PAHO/WHO, is part of an effort to disseminate
information Related to: Equity; Health inequality; Socioeconomic inequality in health; Socioeconomic
health differentials; Gender; Violence; Poverty; Health Economics; Health Legislation; Ethnicity; Ethics;
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and interpretations included in the Materials are those of the authors and not necessarily of The Pan American
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[EQ] Psychosocial resources and social health inequalities in France

Psychosocial resources and social health inequalities in France:

Exploratory findings from a general population survey

 

Florence Jusot (IRDES)

Michel Grignon (Departments of Economics and Health, Aging and Society, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario ; Center for Health Economics and Policy Analysis (CHEPA), McMaster University Associate Researcher (IRDES)

Paul Dourgnon (IRDES)

Institut de recherche et documentation en économie de la santé РFrance - Septembre 2007

 

Available online as PDF file [28p.]  at : http://www.irdes.fr/EspaceAnglais/Publications/WorkingPapers/DT6PsychosocialSocialHealthFrance.pdf

 

“…..We use a unique general population survey to assess the respective impact on self-assessed health status of subjective perceptions of social capital controlling for standard sociodemographic factors (occupation, income, education, age and gender).

 

The survey is unique for two reasons:
First, we use a variety of measures to describe self-perceived social capital (trust and civic engagement, social support, sense of control, and self-esteem). Second, we can link these measures of social capital to a wealth of descriptors of health status and behaviours.


We find empirical support for the link between the subjective perception of social capital and health. Sense of control at work is the most important determinant of health status. Other important ones are civic engagement and social support. To a lesser extent, sense of being lower in the social hierarchy is associated with poorer health status. On the contrary, relative deprivation does not affect health in our survey. Since access to social capital is not equally distributed in the population, these findings suggest that psychosocial factors can explain a substantial part of social inequalities in health in France…..”  (au)

 

 

 

 

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This message from the Pan American Health Organization, PAHO/WHO, is part of an effort to disseminate
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[EQ] Public Policy and Franchising Reproductive Health: Current Evidence and Future Directions

WHO's Reproductive Health and Research Department recently released two joint reports that address contemporary policy and programmatic
issues related to working with the private sector to provide sexual and reproductive health services. 

 

Public Policy and Franchising Reproductive Health: Current Evidence and Future Directions

 

Available online as PDF file [32p.] at: http://www.who.int/reproductive-health/publications/publicpolicy_franchising/publicpolicy_franchising.pdf

 

A joint WHO and USAID PSP-One guidance note that is based on an international consultation meeting. 
The guidance note reviews worldwide experience and future directions / gaps in the evidence base with franchising reproductive health,
identifies key public policy actions for governing the private health sector and establishing public-private sector partnerships. 

[URL: http://www.who.int/reproductive-health/healthsystems/meeting06.htm]

 

Content:

Section I Introduction

Section II The case for franchising reproductive health services

Support for engaging the private health sector

Defining the private health sector

The rationale for franchising reproductive health services

Section III Franchising reproductive health: experiences, emerging lessons and future directions

Experiences

Emerging lessons

Future directions for health franchises

Section IV Public policy and franchising in reproductive health

Financing

Quality of care

Action points

Section V Implementing public/private partnerships to support franchising in reproductive health

Challenges to establishing public/private partnerships

Factors facilitating public/private successes

Action points

Section VI Building the evidence base on franchises

            Section VII Conclusion

 

 

Public - Private Partnerships:
Managing contracting arrangements to strengthen the Reproductive and Child Health Programme in India

 

 

Available online as PDF file [34p.] at: http://www.who.int/reproductive-health/publications/publicprivateptship/pppartnership.pdf

A joint WHO and Indian Institute of Management (Ahmedabad) publication that summarizes lessons and implications from three case studies that investigated factors that contributed to and detracted from developing management capacity for contracting out RCH services to the private sector.  
The case studies also focused on partnerships in service delivery, examining the structure and process of how the public and private sectors' competencies are developed and maintained.   [
URL:   http://www.who.int/reproductive-health/publications/publicprivateptship/index.html]

 

 

“…..Strengthening management capacity and meeting the need for reproductive and child health (RCH) services is a major challenge for the national RCH programme of India. Central and state governments are using multiple options to meet this challenge, responding to the complex issues in RCH, which include social, cultural and economic factors and reflect the immense geographical barriers to access for remote and rural populations.

 

Other barriers are also being addressed, including lessening financial burdens and creating public–private partnerships to expand access. For example, the National Rural Health Mission was initiated in order to focus on rural populations, although departments of health face a number of challenges in implementing this initiative.

 

In this document, we focus on a key area: the development of management capacity for working with the private sector. We synthesize the lessons learnt from three case studies of public–private partnerships in RCH: two are state initiatives, in Gujarat and Andhra Pradesh, and the third is the national mother nongovernmental organization scheme. The case studies were conducted to determine how management capacity was developed in these three public–private partnership initiatives, with contracting out of RCH services.

 

The case studies also focused on partnerships in service delivery, by examining the structure and process of partnerships, understanding management capacity and competence in various public–private partnerships in RCH, and identifying the means for developing the management capacity of partners…..”

 

 

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This message from the Pan American Health Organization, PAHO/WHO, is part of an effort to disseminate
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