Thursday, September 30, 2010

[EQ] European report on preventing violence and knife crime among young people

European report on preventing violence and knife crime among young people

Dinesh Sethi, Karen Hughes, Mark Bellis, Francesco Mitis and Francesca Racioppi
WHO Regional Office for Europe, 2010

Available online PDF [116p.] at  http://bit.ly/dm3KnU

“......Interpersonal violence is the third leading cause of death and a leading cause of disability among young people (those aged 10–29 years) in the 53 countries in the WHO European Region. This report describes the burden that violence imposes on the Region, particularly its poorer countries and groups; risk factors and their interactions; factors that can protect young people from violence; and the evidence supporting the efficacy of preventive action. The report concludes by calling for greater investment in prevention and mainstreaming of the objective of preventing violence among young people into other areas of health and social policy.

This burden of disease and death from youth violence is unequally distributed, and 9 of 10 homicide deaths in the Region occur in low- and middle-income countries. Irrespective of country income, interpersonal violence disproportionately affects young people from deprived sections of society and males, who suffer 4 of 5 homicide deaths. Many biological, social, cultural, economic and environmental factors interact to increase young people’s risk of being involved in violence and knife-related crime.

Factors that can protect young people against violence include good social skills, self-esteem, academic achievement, strong bonds with parents, positive peer groups, good attachment to school, community involvement and access to social support. Good evidence indicates that reducing risk factors and enhancing protective factors will reduce violence.

The experience accumulated by countries within and outside the Region shows that social policy and sustained and systematic approaches that address the underlying causes of violence can make European countries in the Region much safer for young people….“

Content
Executive summary v

1. Overview: violence among young people in the WHO European Region

2. The scale of the problem

3. Risk factors for violence among young people and violence using knives

4. Effective interventions and programming

5. Addressing violence among young people in the European Region: opportunities for action

Annex 1. Additional results and definitions

Annex 2. Methods used

Annex 3. List of health ministry focal people who responded to questionnaire on knife-related violence

To request a copy/copies, please write specifying the number of copies to violenceinjury@ecr.euro.who.int 
The Russian edition is under production and will be available soon.
Dr Dinesh Sethi MSc MD MRCP FFPH Violence and Injury Prevention - Rome Italy Office WHO Regional Office for Europe

 

 *      *     *
This message from the Pan American Health Organization, PAHO/WHO, is part of an effort to disseminate
information Related to: Equity; Health inequality; Socioeconomic inequality in health; Socioeconomic
health differentials; Gender; Violence; Poverty; Health Economics; Health Legislation; Ethnicity; Ethics;
Information Technology - Virtual libraries; Research & Science issues.  [DD/ KMC Area]

“Materials provided in this electronic list are provided "as is". Unless expressly stated otherwise, the findings
and interpretations included in the Materials are those of the authors and not necessarily of The Pan American
Health Organization PAHO/WHO or its country members”.
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
PAHO/WHO Website

Equity List - Archives - Join/remove: http://listserv.paho.org/Archives/equidad.html
Twitter http://twitter.com/eqpaho







IMPORTANT: This transmission is for use by the intended
recipient and it may contain privileged, proprietary or
confidential information. If you are not the intended
recipient or a person responsible for delivering this
transmission to the intended recipient, you may not
disclose, copy or distribute this transmission or take
any action in reliance on it. If you received this transmission
in error, please dispose of and delete this transmission.

Thank you.

[EQ] Seven Challenges in International Development Assistance for Health and Ways Forward

Seven Challenges in International Development Assistance for Health and Ways Forward

Devi Sridhar, Research Fellow in Politics at All Souls College and Director of the Global Health Governance Project, Oxford.

Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics – Volume 38 Issue 3, Fall 2010
           

Available online PDF [11p.] at: http://bit.ly/di5nu6
           

This paper outlines seven challenges in development assistance for health, which in the current financial context, have become even more important to address. These include the following:
(1) the proliferation of initiatives, focusing on specific diseases or issues, as well as
(2) the lack of attention given to reforming the existing focal health institutions, the WHO and World Bank.
(3) The lack of accountability of donors and their influence on priority-setting are part of the reason that there is “initiavitis,” and resistance to creating a strong UN system. (4) Other than absolute quantity of aid, three other challenges linked to donors relate to the quality of aid financing particularly the pragmatic difficulties of financing horizontal interventions,
(5) the marginal involvement of developing country governments as aid recipients, and
(6) the heavy reliance on Northern-based organizations as managers of funds.
(7) The final challenge discussed focuses on two unintended consequences of the recent linking of health and foreign policy for international development assistance.

The paper then provides three suggestions for ways forward:
- creating new mechanisms to hold donors to account,
- developing national plans and
- strengthening national leadership in health, and South-South collaboration……”


 *      *     *
This message from the Pan American Health Organization, PAHO/WHO, is part of an effort to disseminate
information Related to: Equity; Health inequality; Socioeconomic inequality in health; Socioeconomic
health differentials; Gender; Violence; Poverty; Health Economics; Health Legislation; Ethnicity; Ethics;
Information Technology - Virtual libraries; Research & Science issues.  [DD/ KMC Area]

“Materials provided in this electronic list are provided "as is". Unless expressly stated otherwise, the findings
and interpretations included in the Materials are those of the authors and not necessarily of The Pan American
Health Organization PAHO/WHO or its country members”.
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
PAHO/WHO Website
Equity List - Archives - Join/remove: http://listserv.paho.org/Archives/equidad.html
Twitter http://twitter.com/eqpaho





IMPORTANT: This transmission is for use by the intended
recipient and it may contain privileged, proprietary or
confidential information. If you are not the intended
recipient or a person responsible for delivering this
transmission to the intended recipient, you may not
disclose, copy or distribute this transmission or take
any action in reliance on it. If you received this transmission
in error, please dispose of and delete this transmission.

Thank you.

[EQ] Health Inequities in Manitoba: Is the Socioeconomic Gap Widening or Narrowing Over Time?

Health Inequities in Manitoba:
Is the Socioeconomic Gap Widening or Narrowing Over Time?

Martens PJ, Brownell M, Au W, MacWilliam L, Prior H, Schultz J, Guenette W, Elliott L, Buchan S, Anderson M, Caetano P, Metge C, Santos R, Serwonka K.

Manitoba Centre for Health Policy (MCHP) Dept. of Community Health Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Manitoba

Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada - September 2010

Available online PDF [271p.] at: http://bit.ly/cyjFG9

 

“…….Health status and the use of health and social services are key indicators for studying patterns in population health. However, it is not only the actual rate or prevalence that is important, but the distribution of health or health services within the population itself.

 

Are there inequities in health status or the use of services by socioeconomic groups within Manitoba? Many previous MCHP reports have looked at disparity in health outcomes by neighbourhood income and by geographical areas, both cross–sectional and over time. But no report has focused on inequalities so specifically, nor has analysed how to measure these gaps in the most methodologically rigorous way.

 

This report is designed to focus on inequality, both the methodology used to quantify inequality and the analysis of existing inequality within Manitoba’s socioeconomic groups…..”

 

Table of Contents

Executive Summary

Chapter 1: Introduction and Methods

Chapter 2: A Description of the Neighbourhood Income Quintiles using Census Data

Chapter 3: Mortality

Premature Mortality Rate (PMR)

Potential Years of Life Lost (PYLL)

Under Age Five Mortality Rate

Chapter 4: Child Health

Teenage Pregnancy

High School Completion (Graduation)

Dental Extraction

Breastfeeding Initiation Rates

Chapter 5: Adult Health

Diabetes Prevalence

Amputations Among People with Diabetes

Ischemic Heart Disease

Multiple Sclerosis (MS)

Chapter 6: Primary Care and Prevention

Continuity of Care

Hospitalization due to Tuberculosis

Cervical Cancer Screening

Chapter 7: Mental Health

Cumulative Mental Illness

Dementia

Suicide Deaths and Suicide Attempts

Chapter 8: Pharmaceutical Use

Chapter 9: Summary and Conclusion: Closing the Gap

Appendix 1: Glossary

Appendix 2: Crude Rate Tables for Each Indicator

Appendix 3: Results for High School Completion Excluding Band-Operated Schools

 


 *      *     *
This message from the Pan American Health Organization, PAHO/WHO, is part of an effort to disseminate
information Related to: Equity; Health inequality; Socioeconomic inequality in health; Socioeconomic
health differentials; Gender; Violence; Poverty; Health Economics; Health Legislation; Ethnicity; Ethics;
Information Technology - Virtual libraries; Research & Science issues.  [DD/ KMC Area]

“Materials provided in this electronic list are provided "as is". Unless expressly stated otherwise, the findings
and interpretations included in the Materials are those of the authors and not necessarily of The Pan American
Health Organization PAHO/WHO or its country members”.
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
PAHO/WHO Website
Equity List - Archives - Join/remove: http://listserv.paho.org/Archives/equidad.html
Twitter http://twitter.com/eqpaho





IMPORTANT: This transmission is for use by the intended
recipient and it may contain privileged, proprietary or
confidential information. If you are not the intended
recipient or a person responsible for delivering this
transmission to the intended recipient, you may not
disclose, copy or distribute this transmission or take
any action in reliance on it. If you received this transmission
in error, please dispose of and delete this transmission.

Thank you.

Wednesday, September 29, 2010

[EQ] Towards universal access: Scaling up priority HIV/AIDS interventions in the health sector

Towards universal access:
Scaling up priority HIV/AIDS interventions in the health sector

Progress report 2010

WHO; UNAIDS; UNICEF- September 2010


Website: http://bit.ly/aIo5uk

“……This year’s report on HIV/AIDS interventions in the health sector presents strong evidence of progress in the global effort to fight HIV/AIDS, but it also makes clear how much work remains to be done.

In 2009, countries, partners and communities succeeded in scaling up access to HIV prevention, treatment and care. Important gains have been made towards the goal of eliminating mother-to-child transmission of HIV by 2015. Over half of all pregnant women living with HIV in low- and middle-income countries received antiretrovirals to prevent HIV from being transmitted to their babies, and more children living with HIV are benefiting from treatment and care programmes.

Community-driven, rights-based prevention programmes have contributed to lowering the number of HIV infections. WHO’s revised guidelines for antiretroviral therapy now recommend initiation of therapy at an earlier stage of disease and, once fully implemented, these changes will help to further reduce the morbidity and mortality due to HIV.

These advances are all cause for encouragement. Nevertheless, this report also demonstrates that, on a global scale, targets for universal access to HIV prevention, treatment and care will not be met by 2010. Only one third of people in need have access to antiretroviral therapy, coverage of prevention interventions is still insufficient, and most people living with HIV remain unaware of their serostatus. Stigma, discrimination and social marginalization continue to be experienced daily by people who are the most affected by HIV and hardest to reach in many countries, including people living with HIV, sex workers, injecting drug users, men who have sex with men, transgender people, prisoners and migrants.

At the same time, the financial crisis and resulting economic recession have prompted some countries to reassess their commitments to HIV programmes. Reduced funding for HIV services not only risks undoing the gains of the past years, but also greatly jeopardizes the achievement of other Millennium Development Goals, especially those related to maternal and child health.

While the global HIV response may have exposed the shortcomings of current health systems, it has also driven more concerted action towards addressing broader systemic issues, including human resource capacity, physical infrastructure, supply chains, health financing and information systems. As many countries have shown, the ongoing scale-up of HIV programmes can be successfully leveraged to tackle longstanding systemic bottlenecks that have prevented other health outcomes from being achieved. We must also strategically integrate HIV/AIDS interventions into national health services, strategies and plans, including those for sexual, reproductive, maternal and child health, tuberculosis, sexually transmitted infections and harm reduction.

Special approaches remain necessary to address the particular circumstances and needs of those populations at greater risk for HIV infection. Rights-based national strategies must include special efforts to reach the poorest and those who are socially excluded. Programmes must be designed and delivered in ways that ensure equity in access, including for children and women…..”

Download report in chapters

-          Cover and table of contents [pdf 335kb]
- Chapter 1: Introduction [pdf 171kb]
- Chapter 2: HIV testing and counselling [pdf 543kb]
- Chapter 3: Health sector interventions for HIV prevention [pdf 969kb]
- Chapter 4: Treatment and care for people living with HIV [pdf 1.21Mb]
- Chapter 5: Scaling up HIV services for women and children [pdf 774kb]
- Chapter 6: Beyond 2010 [pdf 139kb]

 

 

 *      *     *
This message from the Pan American Health Organization, PAHO/WHO, is part of an effort to disseminate
information Related to: Equity; Health inequality; Socioeconomic inequality in health; Socioeconomic
health differentials; Gender; Violence; Poverty; Health Economics; Health Legislation; Ethnicity; Ethics;
Information Technology - Virtual libraries; Research & Science issues.  [DD/ KMC Area]

“Materials provided in this electronic list are provided "as is". Unless expressly stated otherwise, the findings
and interpretations included in the Materials are those of the authors and not necessarily of The Pan American
Health Organization PAHO/WHO or its country members”.
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
PAHO/WHO Website
Equity List - Archives - Join/remove: http://listserv.paho.org/Archives/equidad.html
Twitter http://twitter.com/eqpaho

 





IMPORTANT: This transmission is for use by the intended
recipient and it may contain privileged, proprietary or
confidential information. If you are not the intended
recipient or a person responsible for delivering this
transmission to the intended recipient, you may not
disclose, copy or distribute this transmission or take
any action in reliance on it. If you received this transmission
in error, please dispose of and delete this transmission.

Thank you.

[EQ] Diploma Course International Health and Policy Evaluation - March 9 to May 27, 2011

Diploma Course on International Health and Policy Evaluation (IHPE)

Erasmus University Rotterdam http://bit.ly/bAMkVL


March 9 - May 27, 2011


The deadline for application is December 1st, 2010


Students who wish to apply for such scholarships should send us a completed application form before October 15, 2010.

This course is organized jointly by the International Institute of Social Studies (ISS), the institute of Health Policy and Management (iBMG) and the Department of Public Health (MGZ) of the Erasmus University Rotterdam and aims to provide an interdisciplinary perspective on population health and health services in low- and middle-income countries.


The Diploma Course consists of 10 one-week modules and runs from March 9 to May 27, 2011. Teaching will take place in the Hague and Rotterdam, the Netherlands. Student housing can be arranged in the Hague.

The programme is designed to equip professionals and researchers with essential training to support rational decision-making and sustainable improvements in population health.

Staff

Prof.dr. Arjun S. Bedi

Prof.dr. Eddy van Doorslaer

Prof.dr. Michael Grimm

Prof.dr. Johan P. Mackenbach

Prof.dr. Roland A. Bal

Prof.dr. David M. Dror

Prof.dr. Hans Severens

Dr. Andrew M. Fischer

Dr. Robert A. Sparrow

Dr. Tanja A.J. Houweling

Dr. Wilma A. Stolk

Dr. André P. den Exter

Dr. Ellen van de Poel

Dr. Rob Baltussen

Application

The deadline for application is December 1st, 2010. For applicants from selected countries, fellowships of the Netherlands Fellowship Programme (NFP) are available for this course. Students who wish to apply for such scholarships should send us a completed application form before October 15, 2010.

Course coordinator, dr. Ellen Van de Poel (internationalhealth@bmg.eur.nl)

 *      *     *
This message from the Pan American Health Organization, PAHO/WHO, is part of an effort to disseminate
information Related to: Equity; Health inequality; Socioeconomic inequality in health; Socioeconomic
health differentials; Gender; Violence; Poverty; Health Economics; Health Legislation; Ethnicity; Ethics;
Information Technology - Virtual libraries; Research & Science issues.  [DD/ KMC Area]

“Materials provided in this electronic list are provided "as is". Unless expressly stated otherwise, the findings
and interpretations included in the Materials are those of the authors and not necessarily of The Pan American
Health Organization PAHO/WHO or its country members”.
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
PAHO/WHO Website
Equity List - Archives - Join/remove: http://listserv.paho.org/Archives/equidad.html
Twitter http://twitter.com/eqpaho







IMPORTANT: This transmission is for use by the intended
recipient and it may contain privileged, proprietary or
confidential information. If you are not the intended
recipient or a person responsible for delivering this
transmission to the intended recipient, you may not
disclose, copy or distribute this transmission or take
any action in reliance on it. If you received this transmission
in error, please dispose of and delete this transmission.

Thank you.

Tuesday, September 28, 2010

[EQ] Segregation and Exposure to High Poverty Schools in US Large Metropolitan Areas: 2008-09

Segregation and Exposure to High Poverty Schools in Large Metropolitan Areas:
2008-09

Nancy McArdle, Theresa Osypuk, and Dolores Acevedo-GarcĂ­a
Diversitydata.org and Harvard School of Public Health supported by the W.K. Kellogg Foundation
September 2010

Available online PDF [23p.] at: http://bit.ly/bG8xAd

A new report published by www.diversitydata.org, ranks public, primary schools in the 100 largest U.S. metropolitan according to racial/ethnic segregation and exposure to concentrated poverty schools. 

“…..Schools are a key environment influencing child development, and research has documented the negative effects of concentrated poverty schools as well as the advantages of racially/ethnically diverse learning environments.

 

This report describes patterns of school segregation and poverty concentration of 30,989 public primary schools
in the 100 largest metropolitan areas for the 2008-09 school year.

Findings include:

- Enrollment is already “majority-minority” nationally but differs substantially across regions, with the West being almost two-thirds minority.

- Residential segregation and school assignment plans lead to high levels of school racial segregation, particularly for blacks.

- Metropolitan areas with the highest school poverty rates are concentrated in California and the Deep South.

- 43 percent of black and Hispanic students attend schools with poverty rates over 80 percent, compared to 4 percent of white students.

- Even within the same metro areas, black and Hispanic students attend schools with dramatically higher poverty rates than whites or Asians.

- Bridgeport and Hartford have the largest disparities.

- To address inequalities, policies must lead to stronger enforcement of fair housing laws, improving school and neighborhood quality,
  and allowing students to cross district boundaries to attend better schools.

 


The report is based on data drawn the diversitydata.org website.  Designed for use by the public, the media, and researchers, diversitydata.org goes beyond many similar demographic websites by including information on school characteristics such as racial/ethnic composition, segregation, and exposure to high-poverty schools, as well as information on health, education, neighborhood conditions, and housing opportunities.


Additionally, the website has interactive features allowing any user to easily create profiles for specific metropolitan areas, as well as customized rankings according to chosen indicators.  ….”
Website: http://diversitydata.sph.harvard.edu/

 *      *     *
This message from the Pan American Health Organization, PAHO/WHO, is part of an effort to disseminate
information Related to: Equity; Health inequality; Socioeconomic inequality in health; Socioeconomic
health differentials; Gender; Violence; Poverty; Health Economics; Health Legislation; Ethnicity; Ethics;
Information Technology - Virtual libraries; Research & Science issues.  [DD/ KMC Area]

“Materials provided in this electronic list are provided "as is". Unless expressly stated otherwise, the findings
and interpretations included in the Materials are those of the authors and not necessarily of The Pan American
Health Organization PAHO/WHO or its country members”.
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
PAHO/WHO Website
Equity List - Archives - Join/remove: http://listserv.paho.org/Archives/equidad.html
Twitter http://twitter.com/eqpaho






IMPORTANT: This transmission is for use by the intended
recipient and it may contain privileged, proprietary or
confidential information. If you are not the intended
recipient or a person responsible for delivering this
transmission to the intended recipient, you may not
disclose, copy or distribute this transmission or take
any action in reliance on it. If you received this transmission
in error, please dispose of and delete this transmission.

Thank you.

[EQ] The Worldwide Governance Indicators: Methodology and Analytical Issues

The Worldwide Governance Indicators: Methodology and Analytical Issues

Daniel Kaufmann, Brookings Institution
Aart Kraay and Massimo Mastruzzi,World Bank
September, 2010

Available online PDF [29p.] at http://bit.ly/aDDvoA

 

“……The Worldwide Governance Indicators (WGI) are a long standing research project to develop cross country indicators of governance.

 

The WGI consist of six composite indicators of broad dimensions of governance covering over 200 countries since 1996:

- Voice and Accountability,

- Political Stability and

- Absence of Violence/Terrorism,

- Government Effectiveness, 

- Regulatory Quality,

- Rule of Law, and

- Control of Corruption.



These indicators are based on several hundred variables obtained from 31 different data sources, capturing governance perceptions as reported by survey respondents, non governmental organizations, commercial business information providers, and public sector organizations worldwide.

 

This paper summarizes the methodology and key analytical issues relevant to the overall WGI project. The updated data for the six indicators, together with the underlying source data and the details of the 2010 update of the WGI, are not discussed in this paper but are available online at www.govindicators.org.

We also plan to release and document subsequent updates of the WGI purely online, with this paper serving as a guide to the overall methodological issues relevant to the WGI project and future updates.

In the WGI we draw together data on perceptions of governance from a wide variety of sources, and organize them into six clusters corresponding to the six broad dimensions of governance listed above.


For each of these clusters we then use a statistical methodology known as an Unobserved Components Model to

(i) standardize the data from these very diverse sources into comparable units,

(ii) construct an aggregate indicator of governance as a weighted average of the underlying source variables, and

(iii) construct margins of error that reflect the unavoidable imprecision in measuring governance.

 

The rest of this paper is organized as follows.

In the next section we discuss the definition of governance that motivates the six broad indicators that we construct.

Section 3 describes the source data on governance perceptions on which the WGI project is based.

Section 4 provides details on the statistical methodology used to construct the aggregate indicators, and

Section 5 offers a guide to interpreting the data.

Section 6 contains a review of some of the main analytic issues in the construction and use of the WGI, and

Section 7 concludes………

 

RELATED CONTENT

Governance Matters 2010: Worldwide Governance Indicators Highlight Governance Successes, Reversals, and Failures

Daniel Kaufmann

Governance Matters 2009: Learning From Over a Decade of the Worldwide Governance Indicators

Daniel Kaufmann, Aart Kraay and Massimo Mastruzzi

Governance Matters VIII: Aggregate and Individual Governance Indicators, 1996-2008

Daniel Kaufmann, Aart Kraay and Massimo Mastruzzi


 

 *      *     *

This message from the Pan American Health Organization, PAHO/WHO, is part of an effort to disseminate
information Related to: Equity; Health inequality; Socioeconomic inequality in health; Socioeconomic
health differentials; Gender; Violence; Poverty; Health Economics; Health Legislation; Ethnicity; Ethics;
Information Technology - Virtual libraries; Research & Science issues.  [DD/ KMC Area]

“Materials provided in this electronic list are provided "as is". Unless expressly stated otherwise, the findings
and interpretations included in the Materials are those of the authors and not necessarily of The Pan American
Health Organization PAHO/WHO or its country members”.
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
PAHO/WHO Website

Equity List - Archives - Join/remove: http://listserv.paho.org/Archives/equidad.html
Twitter http://twitter.com/eqpaho





IMPORTANT: This transmission is for use by the intended
recipient and it may contain privileged, proprietary or
confidential information. If you are not the intended
recipient or a person responsible for delivering this
transmission to the intended recipient, you may not
disclose, copy or distribute this transmission or take
any action in reliance on it. If you received this transmission
in error, please dispose of and delete this transmission.

Thank you.

[EQ] How can telehealth help in the provision of integrated care?

How can telehealth help in the provision of integrated care?

Karl A. Stroetmann, Lutz Kubitschke, Simon Robinson, Veli Stroetmann, Kevin Cullen, David McDaid

Policy Brief 13 - Health Systems and Policy Analysis

World Health Organization 2010 and World Health Organization
on behalf of the European Observatory on Health Systems and Policies 2010

Available online PDF [39p.] at: http://bit.ly/a7xW7T

“…..The quest for more integrated care is not itself new, but new opportunities for effective realisation have emerged quite recently. In particular, the appropriate application of advanced ICT can make a major contribution towards achieving this goal.


Telehealth, the provision of care at a distance, is certain to be a key component in future ICT infrastructure for integrated care. It has already raised high hopes among policy makers with regard to its potential for delivering solutions for  growing capacity problems. For integrated care, today's segregated telehealth applications still require linking into more comprehensive eHealth strategies, in which clinical pathways and service delivery processes are fully coordinated and patient data safely shared.


Although few instances of routine application have yet emerged in Europe or elsewhere – in contrast with an enormous breadth of research activities – an increasingly solid evidence base is emerging indicating that telehealth can be used effectively to help support better integrated care, in particular for those with long-term chronic conditions….”

Content:

Key messages

Executive summary

Policy brief

Health policy context and current use of telehealth

What do we know about the benefits and effectiveness of telehealth?

Policy options to help foster use of  telehealth as a support to integrated care systems

Identifying alternative ways of  bringing about change

Summary and outlook

References

 

 

 *      *     *

This message from the Pan American Health Organization, PAHO/WHO, is part of an effort to disseminate
information Related to: Equity; Health inequality; Socioeconomic inequality in health; Socioeconomic
health differentials; Gender; Violence; Poverty; Health Economics; Health Legislation; Ethnicity; Ethics;
Information Technology - Virtual libraries; Research & Science issues.  [DD/ KMC Area]

“Materials provided in this electronic list are provided "as is". Unless expressly stated otherwise, the findings
and interpretations included in the Materials are those of the authors and not necessarily of The Pan American
Health Organization PAHO/WHO or its country members”.
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
PAHO/WHO Website

Equity List - Archives - Join/remove: http://listserv.paho.org/Archives/equidad.html
Twitter http://twitter.com/eqpaho





IMPORTANT: This transmission is for use by the intended
recipient and it may contain privileged, proprietary or
confidential information. If you are not the intended
recipient or a person responsible for delivering this
transmission to the intended recipient, you may not
disclose, copy or distribute this transmission or take
any action in reliance on it. If you received this transmission
in error, please dispose of and delete this transmission.

Thank you.