Friday, February 29, 2008

[EQ] Big Cities Health Inventory

Big Cities Health Inventory (BCHI) - The Health of Urban USA

 

US National Association of County and City Health Officials (NACCHO) Metro Forum. 2007


Available online as PDF file [150p.] at: http://www.naccho.org/topics/crosscutting/documents/BCHI07COLORFINAL.pdf

 

“…… a compendium of health status indicators produced in a comparative format for the 54 largest metropolitan areas in the United States.

Data on the health of our communities are probably more widely available at this time than at any point in the past. The Internet has become a vast repository of statistics on a variety health conditions. But less progress has been made in turning these raw data into usable information, especially for the nation's largest urban areas which face higher rates of poor health status and racial/ethnic disparities in illness and access to health care services.

 

Several key principles of public health practice depend on having reliable and current information regarding the health status of the community. The most obvious of these principles is evidence-based decision making and the core science of public health, epidemiology, is grounded in the collection and analysis of data.


Perhaps an even more fundamental principle is social justice and the recognition that eliminating health disparities is critical to improving the health of the overall population. For highly diverse urban populations, understanding the root causes of health disparities, including the synergistic interplay of social and environmental stressors that contribute to the erosion of resiliency in many of our nation's urban communities, is necessary to accomplish this goal….”

 

Content:

Introduction

Background

Selection of Indicators and Organization of the Report

Selected Analyses

Trends

Summary  
Section 1 Indicators by Gender, Ranked by City

Section 2 Indicators by Race/Ethnicity, Ranked by City

Section 3 Trends, Ranked Alphabetically by City

Section 4 City Profiles by Health Indicator

Section 5 Selected Socio-demographic Indicators, Ranked Alphabetically by City

Appendix

Technical Notes



Patrick Lenihan, PhD
Public Health Institute of Metropolitan Chicago

 

 

 

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[EQ] The Future Control of Food

The Future Control of Food
A Guide to International Negotiations and Rules on Intellectual Property, Biodiversity and Food Security

Earthscan/IDRC 2008-ISBN 978-1-84407-429-7 Edited by Geoff Tansey and Tasmin Rajotte
International Development Research Centre (IDRC), 2008

Available online at: http://www.crdi.ca/en/ev-118094-201-1-DO_TOPIC.html

“…..guide to the key issues of intellectual property and ownership, genetics, biodiversity, and food security. Proceeding from an introduction and overview of the issues, comprehensive chapters cover negotiations and instruments in the World Trade Organization, Convention on Biological Diversity, UN Food and Agriculture Organization, World Intellectual Property Organization, the International Union for the Protection of New Varieties of Plants, and various other international bodies.

The final part discusses civil society responses to relevant changes and developments in these issues, how they affect the direction of research and development, the nature of global negotiation processes and various alternative futures.

 

 

Content:

Part I. A Changing Food System
1. Food, Farming and Global Rules
Geoff Tansey

Part II. The Key Global Negotiations and Agreements
2. Turning Plant Varieties into Intellectual Property: The UPOV Convention
Graham Dutfield

3. Bringing Minimum Intellectual Property Standards into Agriculture: The Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) Pedro Roffe

4. Promoting and Extending the Reach of Intellectual Property: The World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) Maria Julia Oliva

5. Safeguarding Biodiversity: The Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) Susan Bragdon, Kathryn Garforth and John E. Haapala Jr

6. Giving Priority to the Commons: The International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture (ITPGRFA) Michael Halewood and Kent Nnadozie

7. The Negotiations Web: Complex Connections Tasmin Rajotte

Part III. Responses, Observations and Prospects
8. Responding to Change
Heike Baum├╝ller and Geoff Tansey

9. Postcards from International Negotiations Peter Drahos and Geoff Tansey

10. Global Rules, Local Needs Geoff Tansey

Notes
References

Appendix 1 – List of organizations 2
Appendix 2 – 23 international treaties administered by WIPO
Appendix 3 – A short history of the Annex I list
Glossary

 

 

 

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This message from the Pan American Health Organization, PAHO/WHO, is part of an effort to disseminate
information Related to: Equity; Health inequality; Socioeconomic inequality in health; Socioeconomic
health differentials; Gender; Violence; Poverty; Health Economics; Health Legislation; Ethnicity; Ethics;
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and interpretations included in the Materials are those of the authors and not necessarily of The Pan American
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[EQ] Anti-Tuberculosis Drug Resistance in The World

ANTI-TUBERCULOSIS DRUG RESISTANCE IN THE WORLD

Fourth Global Report


World Health Organization – February 2008 -  WHO/IUATLD Global Project on Anti-tuberculosis

Drug Resistance Surveillance -  WHO/HTM/TB/

 

Available online as PDF file [142p.] at: http://www.who.int/tb/publications/2008/drs_report4_26feb08.pdf

 

This is the fourth report of the WHO/IUATLD Global Project on Anti-Tuberculosis Drug Resistance Surveillance. The three previous reports were published in 1997, 2000 and 2004 and included data from 35, 58 and 77 countries, respectively. This report includes drug susceptibility test (DST) results from 91,577 patients from 93 settings in 81 countries and 2 Special Administrative Regions (SARs) of China collected between 2002 and 2006, and representing over 35% of the global total of notified new smear-positive TB cases. It includes data from 33 countries that have never previously reported.

 

New data are available from the following high TB burden countries1: India, China, Russian Federation, Indonesia, Ethiopia, Philippines, Viet Nam, Tanzania, Thailand, and Myanmar. Between 1994 and 2007 a total of 138 settings in 114 countries and 2 SARs of China had reported data to the Global Project.

 

CONTENTS

Executive Summary

Chapter 1. Introduction

Chapter 2: Methods

Chapter 3: Results

Data reported to WHO between 2002 and 2007

New Cases

Previously treated cases

Non MDR rifampicin resistance

MDR-TB by WHO region

Age and Sex

Drug resistance and HIV

XDR-TB

Data reported to WHO from 1994 to 2007

Regional population weighted medians

Distribution of resistance within regions

Correlation of survey and routine surveillance data

Trends

Estimates

The Supranational Laboratory Network

Chapter 4: Discussion

Overview

Survey Methods

Magnitude and trends

XDR-TB

Drug resistance and HIV

Global estimates

The Supranational Reference Laboratory Network

WHO regions
Annex

 

 

 

 

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This message from the Pan American Health Organization, PAHO/WHO, is part of an effort to disseminate
information Related to: Equity; Health inequality; Socioeconomic inequality in health; Socioeconomic
health differentials; Gender; Violence; Poverty; Health Economics; Health Legislation; Ethnicity; Ethics;
Information Technology - Virtual libraries; Research & Science issues.  [DD/ IKM Area] 

“Materials provided in this electronic list are provided "as is".Unless expressly stated otherwise, the findings
and interpretations included in the Materials are those of the authors and not necessarily of The Pan American
Health Organization PAHO/WHO or its country members”.

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