Thursday, April 21, 2011

[EQ] Violence in the City

Violence in the City

Understanding and Supporting

Community Responses to Urban Violence

The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development /The World Bank 2011

Available online PDF [347p.] at:

“……For millions of people around the world, violence, or the fear of violence, is a daily reality. Much of this violence concentrates in urban centers1 in the developing world. These cities are home to half of the world’s population and are expected to absorb almost all new population growth over the next 25 years


In many cases, the scale of urban violence can eclipse that of open warfare. Some of the world’s highest homicide rates occur in countries that have not undergone wars but have violence epidemics in their urban areas. Concern over these experiences has made urban violence a central preoccupation of policymakers, planners, and development practitioners


This study emerged from a growing recognition that urban communities themselves are an integral part of understanding the causes and impacts of urban violence and for generating sustainable violence prevention initiatives. Participatory appraisals in Latin America and the Caribbean have produced important insights into the manifestations of violence in different contexts.


Nevertheless, much still is to be learned in understanding the myriad strategies that communities employ to manage high levels of violence. Coping mechanisms may range broadly from individual strategies, such as changing one’s work or study routine to avoid victimization, to collective strategies that involve formal institutions such as community- based policing, to reliance on traditional or alternative dispute fora. Some coping mechanisms—such as forming extralegal security groups—can be negative and undermine the bases for long-term violence prevention.


This study aims to understand how urban residents cope with violence, or the threat of it, in their everyday lives, to inform the design of policies and programs for violence prevention…..”


Executive Summary.

1. Introduction and Context.

2. Violence and Cities.

3. Community Capacities for Violence Prevention

4. Social Interventions for Urban Violence Prevention.

5. Community Perspectives on Urban Violence

6. Conclusions and Recommendations .


Appendix A: City Population and Homicide Rates for 50 Cities.

Appendix B: Summaries of Effective Multisectoral Programs

Appendix C: Conflict, Violence, and Community Resilience in Dili, Timor-Leste.

Appendix D: Crime and Violence and the Urban Poor:The Case of Fortaleza, Brazil.

Appendix E: Crime and Violence in Poor Urban Communities in Johannesburg

Appendix F: Crime and Violence in Poor Urban Communities in Nairobi.

Appendix G: Crime, Violence, and Communities Resilience in Cité Soleil, Haiti



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