Uncertainty, evidence and irrecoverable costs:
Informing approval, pricing and research decisions for health technologies
12Karl Claxton;1Stephen Palmer; 3Louise Longworth; 1Laura Bojke; 1Susan
1 Centre for Health Economics,
2 Department of Economics and Related Studies,
3 Health Economics Research Group,
Available online as PDF file [81p.] at: http://bit.ly/plOd2h
“….The general issue of balancing the value of evidence about the performance of a technology and the value of access to a technology can be seen as central to a number of policy questions. Establishing the key principles of what assessments are needed, as well as how they should be made, will enable them to be addressed in an explicit and transparent manner. …”
1. Introduction and overview
2. What assessments are needed?
2.1 Key principles and assessments needed
2.1.1Technologies without significant irrecoverable costs
2.1.2Technologies with significant irrecoverable costs
2.1.3Different types of guidance
2.2 Changes in prices and evidence
2.2.1Changes in effective prices
2.2.2Incentives for evaluative research
2.2.3Assessing the prospects of research
2.3 Social value judgements and ethical principles
3. Informing the assessments
3.1 A checklist of assessment
3.2 Introduction to case studies
3.3 Is it cost-effective and what are the risks?
3.4 Is further research required?
3.5 Do the benefits of research exceed the costs?
3.6 Are the benefits of approval greater than the costs
4. Implications for policy, process and methods
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