Friday, March 9, 2012

[EQ] Inclusive Social Protection in Latin America: A Comprehensive, Rights-based Approach

Inclusive Social Protection in Latin America: A Comprehensive, Rights-based Approach

Simone Cecchini, Rodrigo Martínez

Social Development Division of the Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (ECLAC)

Santiago, Chile, January 2012

Available online

English PDF file [264p.] at:

Protección social inclusiva en América Latina Una mirada integral, un enfoque de derechos
Español - PDF file [284p.] at:


“…..The purpose of this book is to encourage dialogue on social protection (which includes access to health). It highlights the need for innovation in designing policies and instruments, as well as in management, in order to build comprehensive systems that provide inclusive social protection. Social protection has become one of the pillars of social development strategies in Latin America. But, lacking a consistent standard for social protection in the region, the issue has been approached in different ways and from different analytical and policy dimensions.

This book examines the principal ongoing discussions regarding social protection and co-responsibility transfer programmes, looks at the role assigned to them and weighs the conceptual elements, the needs and the challenges to be addressed in order to consolidate comprehensive social protection systems.
These systems should provide universal coverage. Their funding should be grounded in solidarity. And, above all, the citizens’ rights that they establish should be egalitarian. The entire citizenry becomes the subject of protection policies, and social policies come to be viewed as a whole that encompasses the complementary —not contradictory— principles of targeting as an instrument and universality as a goal….”



“……….This book examines identifies the scope and role of social protection in extremely unequal societies subject to a high incidence of persistent poverty. Social protection, seen from a rights-based perspective, is linked to the fight against inequality in a number of ways: it greatly reduces or eliminates the probability of failing to cope with a contingent risk; it curbs the vicious circle of poverty and inequality by preventing families from mortgaging future key assets for human development, such as health and education; and it facilitates the implementation of strategies for empowering the most vulnerable groups to cope with risk, particularly children, elderly people and women. …”


“…..It is the outcome of a systematic and productive exchange to identify viable and effective options for consolidating social policy design and implementation in the area of poverty reduction and social protection, and so help to build the required institutional and human capabilities…..”

Alicia Bárcena, Executive Secretary, Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (ECLAC)




Chapter I Social policy and protection

A. Brief history of social protection in Latin America

B. Social protection, an evolving concept

1. Protection based on formal employment

Emergency protection

Protection as assistance and access to promotion

Protection as a citizen guarantee


Chapter II Social protection in Latin America in the new millennium

A. The present situation: shortcomings and achievements

B. Welfare regimes and social investment

C. Social protection institutions

1. Social protection agencies and bodies

2. Inter-agency coordination

D. Financing social protection

1. Contributory social protection

2. Non-contributory social protection

3. Gender equity

E. Social protection as a right

F. Current policies in the light of conceptual approaches


Chapter III Co-responsibility transfer programmes and social protection

A. Role of co-responsibility transfer programmes in Latin American social policy

B. Diversity in co-responsibility transfer programmes

1. Income-transfer programmes with soft conditionality

2. Demand incentive programmes with strong conditionality

3. Programme coordination systems or networks with conditionalities


Chapter IV Towards a comprehensive social protection system

A. Social policy: protection, promotion and sectoral policies

B. Functions of a comprehensive social protection system

C. Axes of social protection integration

D. Social protection: universal rights tailored to people’s differing needs

1. Poverty and vulnerability

2. Formal and informal employment

3. Families, life cycle and demographic change

4. Care provision

E. Social protection components and instruments

F. Institutions and social protection

Chapter V Co-responsibility transfer programmes as a gateway into social protection

A. Introduction

1. Protecting and securing income

2. Identifying demand and ensuring access

3. Fostering decent work

B. Integration to address heterogeneous demand for social protection

Cross-wise integration: meeting the needs of different population groups

2. Longitudinal integration: meeting the needs of different stages in the human life-cycle

C. Integrating the supply of social protection policies and programmes

1. Horizontal integration: strengthening cross-sector coordination

2. Vertical integration: strengthening coordination between management levels

D. Matching social service supply and quality to the requirements of co-responsibility transfer programmes

E. Matching demand for protection with the supply of services: family support

F. Support for institutional capacity-building: the role of beneficiary selection and registration systems

G. Graduation from co-responsibility transfer programmes and social protection

1. Exit rules

2. Income generation and labour force participation


Chapter VI Consolidating social protection in Latin America: main challenges

A. Feasibility of implementing a rights-based approach in the region

B. Financing: multiple demands and limited resources

C. The heterogeneity of population and protection gaps

D. Cross-sector coordination: a key prerequisite

E. Information for comprehensive management: a still to achieve goal

F. Co-responsibility transfer programmes: the “Christmas tree” syndrome




Annex 1 Social protection and economic, social and cultural rights

Annex 2 Three model co-responsibility transfer programmes in the region

Annex 3 Estimated cost of non-contributory cash transfers

Annex 4 Statistical annex




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