Monday, September 19, 2011

[EQ] Global Atlas on cardiovascular disease prevention and control

Global Atlas on cardiovascular disease prevention and control

CVDs Joint Publication of the World Health Organization the World Heart Federation Organization
editors: Shanthi Mendis, Pekka Puska and Bo Norrving

Available online PDF [164p] at:

Lives Cut Short: New Report Reveals Divide between Rich and Poor Countries for Premature Cardiovascular Disease Deaths

Data provides a wake-up call for governments and individuals to take action against heart disease and stroke

New York, 17 September 2011
– A new global analysis reveals that some of the poorest countries in the world have among the highest age-standardized mortality rates of cardiovascular disease (CVD). The data, launched today ahead of the United Nations High-Level Meeting (HLM) on Non-Communicable Diseases, reveals growing inequalities in the cases and deaths of CVD between countries and populations, with the percentage of premature deaths from CVD more than twice as high in low-income countries compared with high-income countries.

The Global Atlas on Cardiovascular Disease Prevention and Control also shows that by taking action to curb CVD risk, governments and individuals can reduce the health and socioeconomic burden caused by these diseases.1

Heart disease and stroke, together with other cardiovascular diseases, are often wrongly seen as diseases of affluence, although they affect the poor as well as the rich,” said Dr Shanthi Mendis, Coordinator of CVD, World Health Organization. “The new Global Atlas data reveal that although death rates from CVD have been declining in high-income countries over the past two decades, they have increased at an astonishingly fast rate in low- and middle-income countries. Now is the time for us to invest in affordable health interventions to ensure that the world’s poorest people are not subject to the growing CVD burden in addition to communicable diseases.”

CVD remains the biggest cause of deaths worldwide. More than 17 million people died from CVD in 2008, with 82 per cent of deaths occurring in low- and middle-income countries. More than 3 million deaths occurred before the age of 60, many of which could have been prevented through the modification of risk factors: tobacco use, unhealthy diet, lack of physical activity, excessive alcohol consumption and strengthening primary care….”


Section A – Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) due to atherosclerosis 1

1. What are cardiovascular diseases (CVDs)? 2

2. Death and disability due to CVDs (heart attacks and strokes) 8

3. The underlying pathology of heart attacks and strokes 14

4. Evidence for prevention of heart attacks and strokes 16

5. Reducing cardiovascular risk to prevent heart attacks and strokes 18

6. Tobacco: The totally avoidable risk factor of CVDs 26

7. Physical inactivity: A preventable risk factor of CVDs 28

8. Harmful use of alcohol: A preventable risk factor of CVDs 30

9. Unhealthy diet: A preventable risk factor of CVDs 32

10. Obesity: A risk factor of CVDs 36

11. Raised blood pressure (hypertension): A major risk factor of CVDs 38

12. Raised blood sugar (diabetes): A major risk factor of CVDs 40

13. Raised blood cholesterol: A major risk factor of CVDs 42

14. Social determinants and CVDs 44

15. Risk factors take root in the womb, childhood and youth 46

16. Heart attacks and strokes in women 48

17. Other determinants of CVDs: Ageing, globalization and urbanization 50

18. Inequities and CVDs 54

Section B – Other cardiovascular diseases 57

19. Cardiac arrhythmia 58

20. Congenital heart disease 60

21. Rheumatic heart disease: A neglected heart disease of the poor 62

22. Chagas disease (American trypanosomiasis): A neglected disease of the poor

Section C – Prevention and control of CVDs: Policies, strategies and interventions 69

23. Prevention and control of CVDs: How do we know what works? 70

24. Prevention and control of CVDs: The need for integrated and complimentary strategies 72

25. Prevention and control of CVDs: Health in All Policies 74

26. Prevention and control of CVDs: The need for a national NCD policy framework 76

27. Policies and strategies for tobacco control 78

28. Policies and strategies to facilitate healthy eating 80

29. Policies and strategies to facilitate physical activity 84

30. Policies and strategies to address the harmful use of alcohol 88

31. Individual interventions for prevention and control of CVDs 92

32. Role of primary health care in prevention and control of CVDs 94

33. Best buys for cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention and control 96

34. Bridging the implementation gap for prevention and control of CVDs 100

35. Monitoring CVDs 102

36. Social mobilization for prevention and control of CVDs 104

37. Prevention and control of CVDs and socioeconomic development 106

38. Generating resources for CVD prevention and control 108

39. CVD prevention and control: Why it should not be ignored any longer? 110

40. CVD prevention and control : Vision, roadmap and a landmark event 114



Annex i – World Health Assembly resolution A64/61

Annex ii – Moscow Declaration

Annex iii – Regional Declarations on NCDs

Annex iv – Contact information

Annex V – Age-standardized death rates per 100,000 both sexes by cause and Member State, 2008 (1)


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